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Septimius Severus died at York in 211 AD; his sons paid off the rebels and left for Rome.
The stone buildings were demolished, and a large new stone fort was built where the huts had been, for the 4th Cohort of Gauls.
The anoxic conditions at these depths have preserved thousands of artefacts, such as wooden writing tablets and over 160 boxwood combs, thus providing an opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of Roman life – military and otherwise – on the northern frontier.
A study of spindle whorls from the north-western quadrant has indicated the presence of spinners of low- and high- status in the fort in the 3rd and 4th century AD.
A stone altar found in 1914 (and exhibited in the museum) proves that the settlement was officially a vicus, and that it was named Vindolanda.
To the south of the fort is a thermae (a large imperial bath complex), that would have been used by many of the individuals on the site.
The first, a small fort, was probably built by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians about 85 AD.
It is noted for the Vindolanda tablets, a set of wooden leaf-tablets that were, at the time of their discovery, the oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain.
The first post-Roman record of the ruins at Vindolanda was made by the antiquarian William Camden, in his Britannia (1586).
By about 95 AD this was replaced by a larger wooden fort built by the 9th Cohort of Batavians, a mixed infantry-cavalry unit of about 1000 men.
That fort was repaired in about 100 AD under the command of the Roman prefect Flavius Cerialis.