Validating multiple choice test items Web cam chat masterbation
Because students can typically answer a multiple choice item much more quickly than an essay question, tests based on multiple choice items can typically focus on a relatively broad representation of course material, thus increasing the validity of the assessment.The key to taking advantage of these strengths, however, is construction of good multiple choice items.There is little difference in difficulty, discrimination, and test score reliability among items containing two, three, and four distractors. , in which some or all of the alternatives consist of different combinations of options.As with “all of the above” answers, a sophisticated test-taker can use partial knowledge to achieve a correct answer. Savvy test-takers can use information in one question to answer another question, reducing the validity of the test.The most comprehensive and authoritative book in its field, this edition has been extensively revised to include: • more information about writing items that match content standards; • more information about creating item pools and item banking; • a new set of item-writing rules (with examples) in chapter 5, as well as guidelines for other multiple-choice formats; • hundreds of examples including an expanded chapter 4 devoted to exemplary item formats and a new chapter 6 containing exemplary items (with author annotations); • a chapter on item generation (chapter 7) featuring item modeling and other procedures that speed up item development; and • a more extensive set of references to past and current work in the area of multiple-choice item writing and validation.This book will be of interest to anyone who develops test items for large-scale assessments, as well as teachers and graduate students who desire the most comprehensive and authoritative information on the design and validation of multiple-choice test items.A multiple choice item consists of a problem, known as the stem, and a list of suggested solutions, known as alternatives. A stem that presents a definite problem allows a focus on the learning outcome.
This third edition contains some significant revisions that I hope will be an improvement over the previous two editions.
This book is intended for anyone who is seriously interested in designing and validating multiple-choice test items that measure understanding and the application of knowledge and skills to complex situations, such as critical thinking and problem solving.
If a significant learning outcome requires negative phrasing, such as identification of dangerous laboratory or clinical practices, the negative element should be emphasized with italics or capitalization. A question stem is preferable because it allows the student to focus on answering the question rather than holding the partial sentence in working memory and sequentially completing it with each alternative (Statman 1988).
The cognitive load is increased when the stem is constructed with an initial or interior blank, so this construction should be avoided.